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tZhmeb§fnse A\izc\r¯§Ä
Published: January 28, 2016 

ImcqÀ tkma³, NmcpwaqSv

Karror Soman 1BßÚm\¯nsâ AaqÀ¯`mh§fmbn aµlmkw s]mgn¨pw at\mlmcnXbpsS amcnhnñpIÄ hnSÀ¯n \nev¡pó Nn{X§fmWv h¯n¡m\nse Hmtcmtcm tZhmeb§fnepÅXv. AXv shdpw \mð]¯n\mev slÎdnð ØnXn sN¿pó h¯n¡m\nse Bbnct¯mfw hcpó tZhmeb§fnð am{Xañ ]mÝmXycmPy§fnse Fñm {]apJ tZhmeb§fnepw Nn{XIebnse {]Xn`mk¼óòmcmb CXnlmk ]pcpjòmcpsS ssIsbm¸pïv. hnSÀó I®pItfmsS Xn§n\ndªp \nev¡pó kômcnIÄs¡m¸w Rm\pw \nÀóntaj\mbn angn¨p t\m¡n. Hmtcmtcm Nn{X§fnepw \ndªp Xpfp¼póXv \ndamÀó kuµcy¯pSn¸pIfmWv. Xfncpw XmcpaWnªv hnSÀóp \nð¡pó Hcp ]qt´m¸nsâ {]XoXnbmWv AXn\pÅnð A\p`hs¸«Xv. càw]pcï B ssIhncepIÄ NphcpIfpsS Hmtcmtcm tImWnð\nóv H¸nsbSp¯Xv B²ymßnIXbpsS A\izc`mh§Ä am{Xañ Bßob ZÀi\§Ä IqSnbmWv.

bcpiteanse tkmfa³ cmPmhv ]Wn Ign¸n¨ bcpitew tZhmeb¯nsâ amXrIbnemWv t]m¸v knIvkäkv \mema³ FUn. 1477~1481 Imebfhnð Cu Nm¸ð ]pXp¡n ]WnIgn¸n¨Xv. F.Un. 1508ð t]m¸v Pqenbkv cïma\mWv temtIm¯c s]bnâdpw Nn{XImc\pw inev]nbpw _p²nPohnbpamb ssa¡nÄ A³PneotbmSv h¯n¡m\nse knkvddn³ Nm¸ð s]bnâv sN¿m³ Bhiys¸«Xv. knkvddn³ Nm¸ðt]mse Xsó temtIm¯cNn{X§fnð apónð \nev¡pó Nn{XamWv emkvddv PUvPsaâv. t]m¸v Ivfaâv Ggmasâ \nÀt±i{]Imcw F. Un. 1536 apXð 1541 ImebfhnemWv ssa¡ð A³Poentbm AXv ]qÀ¯oIcn¡póXv. BkzmZI a\ÊpIfnð Fópw \ndªp \nev¡pó aäv Nn{XImcòmcmb dmt^ð, ]oätdm, s]dpKot\m, km³t{Sm t_m«nsken, tImÊna tdmtÊen, Pbm³ temdn³t_m A§s\ ]ecpw CXnð ]¦mfnIfmbn«pïv. kzÀ®w Dcp¡nsbmgn¡pwt]mepÅ knkvddo³ Nm¸ense Hmtcm s]bnânwKpw IemImhykuµcy¯nsâ \nd¡q«pIfmWv. B Nn{X§fnð\nóv AÚmXamb GtXm Hcp iàn ASpt¯¡p hóv Ac¡n«pd¸n¡póXpt]mse tXmópw, B \nanj§fnð Fsâ a\Êns\ Btcm Ft§mt«m hen¨ng¨p. Cu kabw ZpÀKpW§Ä \ndªp \nó cmPsIm«mc§sf, ]m]IÀ½§Ä A\pãn¨p t]mó cmPm¡òmsc N{IhÀ¯namsc Bcpw HmÀ¯pt]mIpI kzm`mhnIamWv. Aóv AÔhnizmk§fmbncpsó¦nð Cóv hÀ¤obXbpsS hnjw Noäpó hnjkÀ¸§fmWv. C³UybnepÅXv : AXv tIcf¯nepw ]pfªv hfªv F¯ns¡mïncn¡póp.

Karror Soman 3ChnSps¯ Hmtcm Nn{X§fpw hoSn\pÅnð sXfnbpó sISmhnf¡nsâ {]ImiamWv {]Zm\w sN¿póXv. ]cnip²mßmhns\¡pdn¨pÅ A[nI Úm\]T\ansñ¦nepw hnip²nbpsS Hcp ssNX\yw Cu Nn{X§fnð sXfnªp \nð¡pópïv. Cuizcsâ Bßmhp hkn¡póhÀ¡v AsXmcp hgnIm«nbmWv. AXv ]m]s¯¡pdn¨pÅ Aht_m[amWv hfÀ¯póXv. ssZhw BßmhmsWópw Bßmhnepw kXy¯nepw Bcm[n¡Wsaóv ]dbpt¼mÄ kXy¯nð \½Ä Bcm[\bv¡v tbmKycmtWm? Cu Nm¸enð\nómWv IÀ±o\mfòmÀ ]pXnb t]m¸ns\ sXcsªSp¡póXv.

knkvddn³ Nm¸ð \ndªp \nev¡póXv blqZ~{InkvXob Ncn{XIYIfmWv {]]ô¯nsâ Dð]¯n XpS§o tbip{InkvXphnsâ A´yA¯mg¯nepw DbÀ¸nepw {]Xy£s¸Senepw AXhkm\n¡póp. a\pjya\ÊpIfnð AÚXbpw Adnhnñmbvabpw ]nimNnsâ cq]¯nð Hfnªncn¡póXpt]mse Cu {]]ô¯nsâ krãmhv GtXm \nKqVXbnð Hfnªncpóv \s½ t\m¡póXmbn tXmón. AXmtWm \o ]WnbpI Rm³ s]mfn¡psaóv ss__nfnð ]dbpóXv? tdma³~bcpitew tZhotZhòmÀ, tZhmeb§Ä \qämïpIfmbn a\pjyÀ Bcm[n¨phóXv XIÀóv Xcn¸WambXv Cu hm¡pIsf km[qIcn¡póXtñ? Aót¯ `cWs¯ hnebncp¯pt¼mÄ sNbvX {]hr¯nIfpsS ]m]^e§fpsS i¼fambnt« Cu A[x]X\§sf ImWm\mIq. ]cnip²mßmhv Fóv ]dªmð shfn¨amWv. \nKfnIfpw Al¦mcnIfpamb a\pjyÀ Úm\¯nsâbpw hnthI¯nsâbpw Bßmhnð kôcn¡m¯XpsImïtñ Cu {]]ô¯nð Fñmw Zpc´§fpïm¡pósXóv Hcp \nanjw HmÀ¯pt]mbn. tdmanse tZhotZhòmcpw bcpiteanse tZhmebhpw a\pjyIpe¯n\v Hcp ]mT]pkvXIw XsóbmWv. \qdpIW¡n\v P\§sf sImsómSp¡n cmPy§Ä ]nSn¨S¡n hcpt¼msgms¡ ssZhs¯ {]oXns¸Sp¯m³ tZhmeb§fnð ]qPIÄ _enIÀ½§Ä \S¯n kzbw Bizkn¨hcmWhÀ. bn{kmtbense cmPm¡òmcpsS cmPmhmb ZmhoZnsâ \nÀt±i{]Imcw _n.kn. 920 apXð 950 hscbpÅ ImebfhnemWv bcpitew tZhmebw aI\mb itemtam³ cmPmhv ]WnIgn¸n¨Xv. Aóv AXv temImÛpX§fnð Hómw Øm\¯mbncpóp B[p\nI Ae¦mc NmÀ¯pItfmsS AWnbns¨mcp¡nb tZhmebamsI cXv\w ]Xn¨ IñpIfS§nb hnetbdnb k¼¯mbncpóp.

Karror Soman 2itemtam³ cmPmhv \mSp\o§nbtXmsS hnip² tZhmeb¯nsâ IãImehpw Bcw`n¨p. tdma³~{_n«ojv km{amPy§fS¡w ]Xn\ôv temIiànIfmWv Cu tZhmebw B{Ian¨v AXn\pÅnse k¼¯v A]lcn¨psImïpt]mbXv. Aós¯ ]hn{Xhpw kpµchpamb bcpitew tZhmeb¯nsâ Øm\¯v Cóv \nesImÅpóXv Ckvfmansâ aqómas¯ hnip² tamkvImb AXv~ AIkm tamkvImWv. AXn\Sp¯p XsóbmWv tUmw Hm^v Zn tdm¡v, blqZ~{InkvXy³, apkvfowansâ ]pWy`qanbmWXv. ssZh¯nsâ \Kcw, hnip² \Kcw, kam[m\¯nsâ \Kcw C§s\bpÅ Hma\t]cpIÄ a\pjy³ hmgv¯n¸mSnb Øe¯v Cóv \S¡póXv càs¨mcn¨mWv. AXn\mð cà¯nsâ \Kcw FópIqSn tNÀ¯mð \ñXmWv.

Adnhpw hnthIhpanñm¯ a\pjycmWv Gähpw IqSpXð AÔhnizmk§fnðIqSn Pohn¡póXv. AhÀ¡v XWembn hcpóXv aX§fpw kapZmb§fpamWv. AhÀ¡v h³XWembn hcpóXv kzmÀ°tamlnIfmb `cWm[n]òmÀ. ChcpsS Xebnð tdma³ blqZy cmPm¡òmcpsS incÊnð NqSnbncpó IncoS§Ä IqSnbpïmbmð \qämïpIÄ ]nón«v t]mb cY§fpw IpXncIfpw \½psSbnSbneqsS AXnthKw HmSns¡mïncn¡póXv ImWmw. Cóv B Øm\¯v ImdpIfpw sImSnIfpamWv.

B Iq«¯nð [mcmfw cYbm{XIfpw tLmjbm{XIfpw XoÀ°bm{XIfpapïv. asämcp Iq«À ssZh§sf {]oXns¸Sp¯póXv Bcnepw BÝcyapWÀ¯pó h³ku[§Ä Dïm¡nbn«mWv. Cu cYbm{XIÄ \S¯póhcpw h³ ku[§fpïm¡póhcpw Abð]¡t¯m kaql¯ntem ssZ\wZn\w tcmKw, ]«nWn, ZmcnZ{yw apXembhbmð Xfbv¡s¸«hsâ s\m¼c§Ä Xncn¨dnbmsX kzÀ¤¯nð k´pã\mbn Ignbpó ssZhs¯ {]oXns¸Sp¯m\pw hnXp¼n Ignbpó ]mh§fpsS c£I\mbn hcpóXpw. CXv At[mtemIkwL¯nðs¸«hÀ Asñ¦nð AgnaXn \S¯n k¼ócmIpóhÀ ssZh§sf, ]pWymßm¡sf It¼mf¯nð hnägn¨v ]mh§sf \nÈÐcm¡pó I]S apJ§Ä DÅhcmWv. ChÀ AdnbmsX t]mIpó Hcp bmYmÀ°yapïv. AXmbXv `oIckz`mhapÅ a\pjyÀ, A[nImcZpÀ`cWw \S¯nb km{amPyXziànIÄ AhcpsS tZhmeb§Ä, tZho~tZhòmÀ Cuizc³`qapJ¯p\nóv A{]Xy£am¡nbXv temINcn{X§Ä \s½ ]Tn¸n¡pópïv. Aóv hotdmsS s]mcpXn bp²§fnð Pbn¨hcpw Cóv sXscsªSp¸pIfneqsS s]mcpXn Pbn¡póhcpw am\hcminbpsS \òbv¡mbn ]pWyIÀ½§Ä sN¿póhcmtWm AtXm A[nImc{`m´pw aX{`m´pw kaql¯nð hfÀ¯n AcmPIXzw krãn¨v k¼¯pïm¡póhcmtWm? Cu Ipdp¡v hgnIÄ Isï¯pó Ipdp¡òmÀ kaql¯nð I\ð hmcnsbdnbmsX ]mÝmXycmPy§fnse tZhmeb Nn{X§fnð ImWpóhn[w Bßmt\zjWw \S¯n Ime¯n\pw Ncn{X¯n\pambn kvt\l¯nsâ ]q¦mh\§Ä XoÀ¡pIbmWv thïXv.


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